Nowadays, the World Cup is in full swing, which has att […]
Nowadays, the World Cup is in full swing, which has attracted considerable attention from fans. While viewers are enjoying the games, have they noticed the stadium lighting? We should know that for sports competitions, sports lighting plays a very important role! Then how is the stadium lighting designed? Let's see.
Modern stadium lighting includes basketball court lighting, football court lighting, tennis court lighting, badminton court lighting and other common lighting types. Now let's focus on the problems that should be paid attention to in lighting design and installation of football stadium.
Stadium lighting design is mainly to meet the needs of football, track and field, rugby, hockey and other sports. Football is not only on the ground, but also in the space of 10-30 m from the ground. Therefore, to maintain a certain brightness in all directions of a certain space height, the light distribution in the space below 15m above the football field should be very uniform.
Track and field competitions are mostly held in the range of about 3M above the ground. The lighting of such sports facilities mainly meets the requirement of uniform light distribution on the ground. Javelin, discus, hammer throw and other events can reach a height of 20 meters. Originally, these events were not held in the evening, but now these sports are held more in the evening, and often in the final or qualifying competitions, the importance of which can be seen. Therefore, site lighting must meet the needs of such projects.
In order to meet the requirements of live color TV broadcasting, especially high definition TV broadcasting, it is required that the brightness ratio between athletes, venues and spectators should have a certain value.
However, in the actual design of football field lighting, we still need to consider the light decay caused by dust or light source attenuation during the lamp life. The attenuation of the light source depends on the environmental conditions of the installation site and the type of light source selected. Therefore, the initial illumination of the new lamps in the renovation is generally 1.2-1.5 times of the recommended value in the table.
Installation conditions of football field lighting are mainly divided into
1. Entertainment and training ground lighting with or without a small audience
2. Site lighting with auditorium
The average illumination level in the competition venue is 50-150 Lux in the entertainment and training venue illumination with few or no spectators. The ratio of horizontal illumination to average illumination of training ground is not less than 1:4.
And the requirement of illumination contrast and uniformity of the venue with auditorium is higher. Because we have to take into account the audience's experience of watching the game. For spectators, the visibility of athletes is related to both vertical illumination and horizontal illumination. Vertical illumination depends on the direction and position of the floodlights. Because horizontal illumination is easy to calculate and measure, the recommended value of illumination refers to horizontal illumination. The number of spectators varies greatly with the stadium, and the viewing distance is related to the capacity of the stadium, so the required illumination of the stadium increases with the increase of the stadium as shown in the table above.
The illumination quality of football field mainly depends on illumination level, illumination uniformity and glare control degree. The level of lighting required by athletes is different from that of spectators. For athletes, the level of lighting required is relatively low, while the purpose of spectators is to watch the game. The lighting requirements increase with the increase of the viewing distance.
Metal halide lamp, high pressure sodium lamp and LED lamp can be used as lighting source for football stadium. The choice of lighting source is determined by the annual use time, initial investment and maintenance cost of the project.
The following factors should be taken into account when choosing lighting sources for football stadiums:
1. Luminescence efficiency;
2. Light output of each lamp;
3. Utilization rate and lighting accepted on the field;
4. Color temperature and color rendering of light source;
5. Start-up and restart characteristics;
6. Time spent annually;
7. Initial investment and operation cost.
Halogen tungsten lamp, metal halide lamp and high pressure sodium lamp are all suitable for football field lighting, but if the illumination of football field requires high illumination, halogen tungsten lamp is inappropriate unless the annual use time is short. If possible, the lighting level can be improved to meet the needs of color TV broadcasting in the future. The color rendering index of high-pressure sodium lamp is only 20-30, and the light efficiency is difficult to reach 100 LM/W, so it is not suitable for color TV broadcasting.
Only metal halide lamps and LED lighting lamps with high color rendering can meet the requirement of TV broadcasting.
Site lighting has two basic layout modes:
The lamp position can be installed on the edge of the bleacher roof; the two ways are to install the lamp above the pole and the pole around the stadium; and to determine the number and power of the lamp according to the lighting requirements of different stadiums.
First: The lamp poles are arranged in the four corners of the court.
Distributing light evenly according to the stadium, lighting and four corners of the stadium; installing four sets of lights, each group of high pole lights with five projecting lights.
Two: Four sets of lamp cloth and two sides of football field
Each group of lamp poles is equipped with five projecting lights, and the power is generally adjusted according to the required illumination.
Three: There are six groups of lights around the stadium. Six sets of lamp poles with 2 lamps per assembly
Fourth: Distributing light evenly around and according to eight sets of lamps.